Title IX at 45: An Introduction to and Review of the Education Law that Shaped Sports

09/20/2017 - 12:00
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Title IX at 45: An Introduction to and Review of the Education Law that Shaped Sports
Date: Wednesday, September 20, 2017
Time: 12:00pm
Location: Eckstein Hall, TBA
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In commemoration of the 45th anniversary of the passage of Title IX, on Wednesday, September 20th, Professor Paul Anderson, the Director of the National Sports Law Institute and Sports Law program at Marquette University Law School, presents Title IX at 45: An Introduction to and Review of the Education Law that Shaped Sports. This presentation will provide an overview of the law and how it has been developed, molded, and clarified in ways that have impacted the sports industry.  In order to provide lawyers, athletic administrators, law students and others with a basic understanding of the law, this presentation will focus on a select group of the 45 developments listed below.  The Wisconsin Board of Bar Examiners has approved this event for 1 Wisconsin CLE credit.

This presentation is open to Marquette University Law School students, faculty, staff and alumni, and all other interested Marquette personnel.  If you are interested in attending please click to register below, by Friday, September 15, 2017.

 

  1. The History of Title IX (1964-1972)
    • 42 U.S.C. § 2000d
    • Discrimination Against Women: Hearing Before the Spec. Subcomm. On Educ. On § 805 of H.R. 16098 of the Comm. On Educ. And Labor, 91st Cong., 2d Sess. (1970)
    • Amend. 398, 117 Cong. Rec. 30,156 (1971)
    • 117 Cong. Rec. 30,406-07 (1971) (statement of Sen. Birch Bayh)
    • Summary: Amendment No. 874 to the Higher Education Bill, S.659, 118 Cong. Rec. 5808 (1972)
    • Education Amendments of 1972, S. Rep. No. 92-798, 92nd Cong., 2d Sess. (1972)
    • 118 Cong. Rec. 5807 (1972) (statement of Sen. Birch Bayh)
  1. The Law (1972)
    • 20 U.S.C. § 1681(a)
  1. The First Case (1973)
    • Brenden v. Independent School District 742, 477 F.2d 1292 (8th Cir. 1973)
  1. The Javits Amendment (1974)
    • Pub. L. No. 93-380, Title VII, Part D, § 844, 88 Stat. 612 (1974)
  1. The Regulations (1975)
    • Athletics, 34 C.F.R. § 106.41 (§ 106.41(a), § 106.41(c), § 106.41(d))
    • Financial Assistance, 34 C.F.R. § 106.37 (§ 106.37(a), 106.37(c))
    • University of Richmond v. Bell, 543 F. Supp. 321 (E.D. Va. 1982)
    • Hillsdale College v. Department of Health, Education & Welfare, 696 F.2d 418 (6th Cir. 1982)
    • Williams v. School District of Bethlehem, 799 F. Supp. 513 (E.D. Penn. 1992)
    • Cook v. Colgate University, 802 F. Supp. 737 (N.D.N.Y. 1992)
  1. OCR Guidance #1: The Memorandum (1975)
    • Memorandum from Peter Holmes, Dir.., Office for Civ. Rights, U.S. Dep’t of Health, Educ., and Welfare, to Chief State School Officers, Superintendents of Local Educ. Agencies, and Coll. and Univ. Presidents, Elimination of Sex Discrimination in Athletic Programs (Sept., 1975)
    • McCormick ex rel. McCormick v. School District of Mamaroneck, 370 F.3d 275 (2nd Cir. 2004)
  1. Validity of the Regulations: Part One (1978)
    • NCAA v. Califono, 444 F. Supp. 425 (D. Kan. 1978)
  1. The First Cause of Action Under Title IX (1979)
    • Cape v. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Ass’n, 424 F. Supp. 732 (E.D. Tenn. 1976)
    • Jones v. Oklahoma Secondary School Activities Ass’n, 453 F. Supp. 150 (W.D. Okla. 1977)
    • Cannon v. University of Chicago, 441 U.S. 677 (1979)
    • Cannon v. University of Chicago, 406 F. Supp. 1257 (N.D. Ill. 1976)
    • Cannon v. University of Chicago, 559 F.2d 1063 (7th Cir. 1977)
  1. OCR Guidance #2: The Policy Interpretation (1979)
    • A Policy Interpretation: Title IX and Intercollegiate Athletics, Office for Civ. Rights, Dep’t of Educ. (Dec. 11, 1979), http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/t9interp.html
    • 34 C.F.R. § 106.37,  § 106.41(c)(2)(10)
    • Pederson v. Louisiana State University, 912 F. Supp. 892 (M.D. La. 1994)
  1. Validity of the Regulations: Part Two (1982)
    • North Haven Board of Education v. Bell, 456 U.S. 512 (1982)
    • Part 86 – Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs and Activities Receiving or Benefiting from Federal Financial Assistance, 40 Fed. Reg. 24,128 (1975)
  1. The Supreme Court Limits the Application of Title IX (1984)
    • Grove City College v. Bell, 465 U.S. 555 (1984)
    • O’Connor v. Peru State College, 605 F. Supp. 753 (D. Neb. 1985)
    • Lantz v. Ambach, 620 F. Supp. 663 (S.D.N.Y. 1985)
    • O’Connor v. Peru State College, 781 F.2d 632 (8th Cir. 1986)
    • Bennett v. West Texas State University, 799 F.2d 155 (5th Cir. 1986)
    • EEOC v. Madison Community Unit School District, 43 Fair Emp’t Prac. Cas. (BNA) 1410 (1986)
  1. Congress Reestablishes the Reach of Title IX (1988)
    • 134 Cong. Rec. H1038 (daily ed. Mar. 22, 1988) (statement of Rep. Oakar)
    • Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, Pub. L. No. 100-239, 102 Stat. 28 (1987)
    • Civil Rights Restoration Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1687
  1. OCR Guidance #3: Investigator’s Manual (1990)
  1. The Second Cause of Action Under Title IX (1992)
    • Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools, 503 U.S. 60 (1992)
    • Alexander v. Yale University, 459 F. Supp. 1 (D. Conn. 1977)
    • Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools, 911 F.2d 617 (11th Cir. 1990)
  1. Elimination of Opportunities: Part One (1993)
    • Favia v. Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 7 F.3d 332 (3rd Cir. 1993)
    • Roberts v. Colorado State Board of Agriculture, 998 F.2d 824 (10th Cir. 1993)
  1. Elimination of Opportunities: Part Two (1994)
    • Kelley v. Board of Trustees, 35 F.3d 265 (7th Cir. 1994), cert. denied, 513 U.S. 1128 (1995)
    • Miami University Wrestling Club v. Miami University, 302 F.3d 608 (6th Cir. 2002)
  1. Reporting on Title IX (1994)
    • Disclosure of Athletic Program Participation Rates and Financial Support Data, Pub. L. No. 103–382, § 360B (1994)
    • 20 U.S.C. § 1092 n.(b)(3), § 1092 n.(b)(7)–(8), § 1092(g)
    • The Equity in Athletics Data Analysis Cutting Tool, Office of Postsecondary Educ., http://ope.ed.gov/athletics/ 
    • Civil Rights Data Collection, Office for Civ. Rights, http://ocrdata.ed.gov/Default.aspx
    • Brust v. Regents of University of California, 2007 WL 4365521 (E.D. Cal. 2007)
    • Barrett v. West Chester University of Pennsylvania of State System of Higher Education, 2003 WL 22803477 (E.D. Pa. 2003)
  1. OCR Guidance #4: The Clarification (1996)
  1. Application of the Three-part Test: The Safe Harbors (1996)
    • Cohen v. Brown University, 809 F. Supp. 978 (D. R.I. 1992)
    • Cohen v. Brown University, 101 F.3d 155 (1st Cir. 1996), cert. denied, Brown University v. Cohen, 520 U.S. 1186 (1997)
    • Norma Cantu, Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights, Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Guidance: The Three-Part Test, Office for Civ. Rights, U.S. Dep’t of Educ. (Jan. 16, 1996), http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/clarific.html
    • Cohen v. Brown University, 991 F.2d 888 (1st Cir. 1993)
    • Neal v. Board of Trustees, 198 F.3d 763 (9th Cir. 1999)
  1. OCR Guidance #5: Sexual Harassment (1997)
    • Ericson v. Syracuse University, 35 F. Supp. 2d 326 (S.D.N.Y. 1999)
    • Doe v. Lago Vista Independent School District, 106 F.3d 1223 (5th Cir. 1997)
    • R.L.R. v. Prague Public School District I-103, 838 F. Supp. 1526 (W.D. Okla. 1993)
    • Norma Cantu, Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights, Sexual Harassment Guidance: Harassment of Students by School Employees, Other Students, or Third Parties, 40000-01-P, Office for Civ. Rights, U.S. Dep’t of Educ. (Mar. 13, 1997), http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/sexhar00.html
  1. The Third Cause of Action Under Title IX (1998)
    • Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District, 524 U.S. 274 (1998)
  1. OCR Guidance #6: Financial Aid (1998)
    • Dr. Mary Frances O’Shea, National Coordinator for Title IX Athletics, Dear Colleague Letter: Bowling Green State University, Office for Civ. Rights, U.S. Dep’t of Educ. (July 23, 1998), http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/bowlgrn.html
    • Gonyo v. Drake University, 879 F. Supp. 1000 (S.D. Iowa 1995)
  1. The NCAA Is Not Subject to Title IX (1999)
  1. The Fourth Cause of Action Under Title IX (1999)
    • Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education, 526 U.S. 629  (1999)
  1. Girls Can Play Football Too (1999)
    • Mercer v. Duke University, 190 F.3d 643 (4th Cir. 1999)
    • Mercer v. Duke University, 181 F. Supp. 2d 525 (M.D.N.C. 2001)
    • Mercer v. Duke University, 50 Fed. Appx. 643 (4th Cir. 2002)
  1. What Is a Sport Under Title IX: Part One (2000)
    • Letter from Dr. Mary Frances O’Shea, Nat’l Coordinator for Title IX Athletics, Office for Civ. Rights, U.S. Dep’t of Educ., to David V. Stead, Exec. Dir., Minn. State High Sch. League (Apr. 11, 2000)
    • Letter from Dr. Mary Frances O’Shea, Nat’l Coordinator for Title IX Athletics, Office for Civ. Rights, U.S. Dep’t of Educ., to David V. Stead, Exec. Dir., Minn. State High Sch. League (May 24, 2000)
  1. OCR Guidance #7: Revised Guidance (2001)
    • Office for Civ. Rights, U.S. Dep’t of Educ., Revised Sexual Harassment Guidance: Harassment of Students by School Employees, Other Students, or Third Parties (Jan. 2001), http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/shguide.pdf
    • Hendon v. Coll. of Mainland, 2009 WL 367500 (S.D. Tex. 2009)
    • A.J. v. Victor Elementary School District, 2011 WL 1005009 (Cal. App. 4 Dist. 2011)
  1. The Federal Government Reports on Title IX’s Impact (2001)
    • 1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965, Pub. L. No. 105-244, § 805 (“Study of Opportunities for Participation in Athletics Programs”)
    • Pub. L. No. 110-315, Title IX, Part C, § 931(1), 122 Stat. 3456, (Aug. 14, 2008) (effective on enactment)
    • U.S. General Accounting Office, No. 01-297, Intercollegiate Athletics: Four-Year Colleges’ Experiences Adding and Discontinuing Teams (Mar. 2001), http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d01297.pdf
    • National Wrestling Coaches Ass’n v. Department of Education, 366 F.3d 930 (D.D.C. 2003)
  1. OCR Guidance #8: Further Clarification (2003)
  1. Elimination of Opportunities: Part Three (2004)
    • National Wrestling Coaches Ass’n v. Department of Education, 263 F. Supp. 2d 82 (D.D.C. 2003)
    • National Wrestling Coaches Ass’n v. Department of Education, 366 F.3d 930 (D.C. Cir. 2004), cert. denied, 545 U.S. 1104 (2005)
    • Equity in Athletics, Inc. v. Department of Education, 504 F. Supp. 2d 88 (D.C. Va. 2007), aff’d, 639 F.3d 91 (4th Cir. 2011)
    • College Sports Council v. Department of Education, 357 F. Supp. 2d 311 (D.D.C. 2005)
    • Letter from Rod Paige, Sec’y of Educ., to Eric Pearson, Chairman, College Sports Council (July 28, 2003)
    • Steven Geoffrey Gieseler, Pac. Legal Found., Petition to Repeal, Amend, and Clarify Rules Applying Title IX to High School Athletics (June 19, 2007), www.pacificlegal.org/document.doc?id=559
    • Letter from Margaret Spellings, Secretary of Education to Steven Geoffrey Gieseler, Pac. Legal Found. (Mar. 27, 2008), http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/title-ix-2008-0327.pdf
    • Letter from Joshua Thompson, Pac. Legal Found., to Office for Civ. Rights, U.S. Dep’t of Educ. (Feb. 1, 2011), http://www.pacificlegal.org/page.aspx?pid=1477
    • Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relif, Am. Sports Council v. Dept of Educ., No. 2011cv01347, http://www.pacificlegal.org/page.aspx?pid=1628
  1. Violations of Title IX: Scheduling Athletic Contests (2004)
    • 34 C.F.R. § 106.41(c); 106.41(c)(3)
    • Letter to Bob Gardner, Commissioner, Indiana High School Athletic Association, U.S. Dep’t Of Educ.: Off. of Civ. Rights (Feb. 13, 1997)
    • McCormick v. School District of Mamaroneck, 370 F.3d 275 (2d Cir. 2004)
  1. OCR Guidance #9: Additional Clarification (2005)
  1. The Fifth Cause of Action Under Title IX (2005)
  1. Violations of Title IX: Athletic Facilities (2007)
    • Landow v. School Board of Brevard County, 132 F. Supp. 2d 958 (M.D. Fla. 2000)
    • Daniels v. School Board of Brevard County, 995 F. Supp. 1394 (M.D. Fla. 1997)
    • Mason v. Minnesota State High School League, 2004 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 13865 (D. Minn. 2004)
    • Cobb v. United States Department of Education for Civil Rights, 2006 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 39985 (D. Minn. 2006)
    • Cobb v. United States Department of Education for Civil Rights, 487 F. Supp. 2d 1049 (D. Minn. 2007)
    • Cobb v. United States Department of Education for Civil Rights, 2007 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 97578 (D. Minn. 2007)
  1. What Is a Sport Under Title IX: Part Two (2008)
  1. Title IX and the Constitution (2009)
    • Fitzgerald v. Barnstable School Committee, 504 F.3d 165 (1st Cir. 2007)
    • Fitzgerald v. Barnstable School Committee, 555 U.S. 246 (2009)
  1. OCR Guidance #10: Intercollegiate Clarification and Bullying (2010)
  1. What Is a Sport Under Title IX: Part Three (2010)
    • Biediger v. Quinnipiac University, 616 F. Supp. 2d 277 (D. Conn. 2009)
    • Biediger v. Quinnipiac University, 728 F. Supp. 2d 62 (D. Conn. 2010)
  1. Application of the Three-part Test: Notice and Assurance of Compliance (2010)
    • Mansourian v. Regents of University of California, 602 F.3d 957 (9th Cir. 2010)
  1. OCR Guidance #11: Sexual Harassment Letter (2011)
  1. Elimination of Opportunities: Part Four (2012)
    • American Sports Council v. U.S. Department of Education, 850 F. Supp. 2d 288 (D.D.C. 2012)
  1. OCR Guidance #12: Retaliation Letter and The Blueprint (2013)
  1. OCR Guidance #13: Sexual Violence (2014)
  1. OCR Guidance #14: Title IX Coordinators (2015)
  1. Transgender Participation (2016)
  • James A. Ferg-Cadima, Letter to Emily Prince, U.S. Dep’t Of Educ.: Off. of Civ. Rights (Jan. 7, 2015)
  • Catherine Lhamon & Vanita Gupta, Dear Colleague Letter: Transgender Students, U.S. Dep’t Of Educ.: Off. of Civ. Rights (May 13, 2016)
  • Examples of Policies and Emerging Practices for Supporting Transgender Students, U.S. Dep’t Of Educ.: Off. of Civ. Rights (May 2016).
  • Sandra Battle & T.E. Wheeler, II, Dear Colleague Letter, U.S. Dep’t Of Educ.: Off. of Civ. Rights (Feb. 22, 2017).
  • G.G. v. Gloucester Cnty Sch. Bd., 822 F.3d 709 (4th Cir. 2016), vacated & remanded¸ 137 S.Ct. 1239 (2017).
  • Whitaker v. Kenosha Unified School District No. 1, 858 F.3d 1054 (7th 2017)
  • State of Texas v. U.S., 201 F.Supp.3d 810 (N.D. Tex. 2016), app. Dismissed 2017 U.S. App. LEXIS 2373 (5th Cir. 2017).
  • Board of Educ. of the Highland Local Sch. Dist. v. U.S. Dep’t of Educ., 208 F.Supp.3d 850 (S.D. Ohio Sept. 26, 2016)
  • Students & Parents for Privacy v. U.S. Dept. of Educ., 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 150011 (N.D. Ill. Oct. 18, 2016)

 

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