An Alternative Arena Approach: Arsenal and Emirates Stadium

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ArsenalRecently, Wisconsin governor Scott Walker approved an Assembly bill earmarking $250 million for the Milwaukee Bucks to use in financing their new downtown arena.

Since I was at the tail end of my London study abroad program at the time of the approval, it was interesting hearing a different perspective on the approach to arena building.

Over in the United Kingdom, it’s quite rare for the government to intervene (outside of the 2012 Olympics bid) in stadium deals.

I think back to the team I support as the ultimate in alternative model—Arsenal Football Club.

The Gunners were based in the Highbury, a 38,000-seat stadium that had existed since the 1920s. By the turn of the 21st Century, it was apparent to manager Arsene Wenger and the Arsenal board that to compete in England and Europe consistently, a new revenue stream was needed. This was before the staggering media rights deals for the Premier League started increasing at an astronomical rate.

Continue reading “An Alternative Arena Approach: Arsenal and Emirates Stadium”

Crowdfunding and Sport: How Soon Until the Fans Own the Franchise?

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Jamaika-BobThe latest issue of the Marquette Sports Law Review is now available online.  This is a faculty symposium issue.  I am proud to have my article, “Crowdfunding and Sport: How Soon Until the Fans Own the Franchise?,” included in this issue.  Here is the introduction.

The Green Bay Packers football team operates as a nonprofit corporation that has been publicly-owned since 1923.  Since that time, the franchise has raised capital by selling shares of stock in five different stock offerings, and there are currently over 350,000 individual members of the public who are shareholders of the team.  These shareholders are the joint owners of a sports franchise that is currently valued at $1.375 billion.

The public ownership of the Green Bay Packers is often noted in the media, and it is generally praised for contributing to the team’s strong tie to the surrounding community.  However, it is highly unlikely that any other N.F.L. team will follow in Green Bay’s footsteps.  Public ownership of franchises is actually prohibited under the current N.F.L. Constitution, and Green Bay’s ownership structure persists solely because of a grandfather clause that excludes the Packers from the prohibition.  Moreover, the unique nature of the Packer’s public ownership structure extends beyond the boundaries of the N.F.L.  The Green Bay Packers are currently the only wholly publicly owned franchise among all of the four major sports leagues (football, baseball, basketball and hockey) in the United States.

There is no reason why publicly owned professional sports teams cannot thrive and succeed at the same level as privately owned teams.  While public ownership of professional sports teams is relatively rare in the United States, it is common overseas.  Notable examples of publicly owned soccer teams are Real Madrid and Barcelona FC, both of which play in Spain’s Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional, commonly known as “La Liga.”  These teams are operated as “socios,” a form of nonprofit organization where fans of the club pay an annual membership fee for the right to buy season tickets in a special section of the stadium and the right to vote on certain management decisions.  Another team that plays in La Liga, Real Oviedo FC, has maintained consistent and significant numbers of public owners despite the relative disadvantage of being based in the region of Asturias, far from Spain’s major population centers.

It is not just that the United States lacks more than one example of a major league team that is wholly owned by the public.  It is also uncommon for American major league sports teams to have a minority ownership stake comprised of public shareholders.  In recent decades, the private owners of several major league franchises have experimented with establishing and maintaining a publicly owned minority stake, seeking to inject additional capital into their team whilst still maintaining control over the enterprise.  However, in each instance the private ownership group used a stock offering in order to create a minority interest, only to subsequently abandon the structure and negotiate the sale of the entire team to new owners.  For example, the Cleveland Indians baseball team held a public offering of shares in 1998 but went wholly private again in 1999.  The Boston Celtics basketball team had a longer run with minority public shareholders, holding a public stock offering in 1986 but eventually reverting to wholly private ownership in 2002.

Today the ownership of major league sports teams in the United States remains almost exclusively the province of large corporations, wealthy individuals or ownership groups comprised of these same two actors. Continue reading “Crowdfunding and Sport: How Soon Until the Fans Own the Franchise?”

Michael Sam and the NFL Locker Room: How Masculinities Theory Explains How We View Gay Athletes

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footballLast year, Michael Sam became the first openly gay player in the National Football League. Sam was drafted by the St. Louis Rams in the seventh and final round of the draft. He survived the initial round of pre-season cuts with the team, but was let go when the team had to make a 53-player roster. He was picked up by the Dallas Cowboys and played on the team’s practice squad. After seven weeks with the Cowboys, Sam was released and remained unsigned the rest of the season.

Sam’s coming out and his subsequent drafting and playing in the NFL caused quite a stir. According to one Sports Illustrated article, one NFL player personnel assistant said, “I don’t think football is ready for [an openly gay player] just yet.”

But why? Continue reading “Michael Sam and the NFL Locker Room: How Masculinities Theory Explains How We View Gay Athletes”

Unpredictable March Madness and the Law

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This past weekend sixty-four teams played a total of fifty-two basketball games. Games are broadcast over four different television networks, and tens of millions of eyes remain glued to T.V. sets across the country — soaking up each buzzer-beating shot and Cinderella story. Just as unpredictable as the outcome of each tournament game is the result of a case pending against the NCAA, the entity that profits enormously from the nation’s fixation with March Madness.

O’Bannon v. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), an antitrust class-action lawsuit, seeks to require the NCAA, and other enterprises who benefit from college-athletes’ images and popularity, to pay the players. This potential change in rules could shift these basketball and football stars from amateur to professional athletes. This change would significantly alter the landscape of collegiate sports.

Ed O’Bannon, a former UCLA basketball star, along with other former college athletes, filed suit in July 2009. The original defendants included the NCAA, the Collegiate Licensing Company, and Electronic Arts (best known for EA Sports). The latter two settled for $40 million. Last August, federal judge Claudia Wilken ruled in favor of the players, holding that not paying athletes for the commercial use of their likeness and image was a violation of antitrust laws. The NCAA’s appeal is being heard this month by the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.

This is a divisive issue that has passionate proponents on both sides. There are people in favor of paying college athletes and many that are opposed. In either case, one thing is certain: this March, there is much more than tournament brackets on the line.

What Is the NBA?

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basketballProfessor Nadelle Grossman has another forthcoming publication, “What Is the NBA?”, written for the faculty symposium issue of the Marquette Sports Law Review.  The abstract is below, and you can access the full article at SSRN:

The NBA’s organizational structure is curious.  While courts at times refer to the NBA as a joint venture and at other times as a single entity, their analyses are conducted not for state organization law purposes but to assess the NBA’s compliance with federal antitrust law.  Commentators, too, consistently address the NBA’s organizational structure only under antitrust law and not state organization law. As I argue, given the different purposes of these two legal regimes — antitrust law to protect consumers through preserving competition, and state organization law to ensure managers are faithful to the business purpose and to create a default structure among owners and managers — conclusions about the NBA’s organizational structure for purposes of compliance with antitrust law does not control the analysis of the NBA’s structure for purposes of state organization law.

To fill the gap in case law and commentary, this article analyzes the NBA’s organizational form under state organization law.  This analysis is important because the NBA’s organizational form impacts the rights and duties of the member team-owners of the NBA.  If, for example, the NBA is a joint venture partnership under state organization law — that is, an association of team owners who have come together to pursue a limited scope business for profit — then by default, its members would owe fiduciary duties to the other members and any member could seek judicial expulsion of a recalcitrant member.

The NBA, Television Broadcasting Rights, and Collective Bargaining

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Television broadcasting rights in professional sports are a huge chunk of the revenue equation for professional leagues, and it isn’t very hard to see how that is the case. For example, the current NBA TV deal is worth about $930 million annually. In 2016, this deal is set to expire and current reports indicate that an extension is in the works that will pay the NBA over $2 billon annually for the rights to broadcast games on Turner and ESPN networks. When this deal comes to fruition, the revenue generated by the TV deal will dwarf the money coming in from any other source.

While the value of the NBA’s television broadcasting rights are staggering, the most interesting aspect of the new deal is how it will affect the collective bargaining process. In 2011, the NBA suffered through a lockout where owners claimed to be losing hundred of millions of dollars each year. For this reason, the owners argued, the player’s cut of the revenue needed to be scaled back. By the time the lockout ended, the owners had modest success in achieving this particular goal, pinning the player’s share of basketball related income back to between 49% and 51%. The previous basketball related income split was approximately 57–43% in favor of the players.

With the television revenue doubling by 2016, the owners will not have a leg to stand on if they again try to argue that teams are losing money. Considering the amount of money set to be on the table, the players are likely to fight for a bigger chunk. And if the owners aren’t reasonable about it, the league could be looking at another lockout.

Packers CEO Wants to Enhance “Fan Experience” at Lambeau

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The Green Bay Packers have sold out every home game since the Fourteenth Century, right? Nothing to worry about when it comes to attracting fans and providing them a good experience, right?
Not right if you’re Mark Murphy. In an “On the Issues with Mike Gousha” program at Eckstein Hall on Tuesday, the president and CEO of the Packers described in detail the team’s efforts to improve the “fan experience” and to make Lambeau Field a year-round destination for events and experiences that extend well beyond game days.

Murphy told a capacity audience in the Appellate Courtroom that, as much as Lambeau is revered as a football shrine, until the large-scale renovation of the stadium in 2003, it was used for 10 games or so each year and not for much else. He called the decision to add a large atrium which includes the Packer Pro Shop and areas for eating and drinking “a brilliant decision” that opened the way to making Lambeau a year-round facility. “It completely changed the organization and particularly Lambeau Field,” Murphy said.

Murphy joined the team in 2008 and is overseeing several hundred million dollars in continuing expansion and improvements to Lambeau, including the addition of 7,000 seats, a new sound system, two HD video boards, and a large gate at the north end of the stadium. Continue reading “Packers CEO Wants to Enhance “Fan Experience” at Lambeau”

Common Sense Could Have Saved NFL from Domestic Abuse Furor

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Ray Rice. Adrian Peterson. These names used to cause fans to wax poetic about on-field performances the previous Sunday or potential blockbuster fantasy football trades. Now, mentioning them conjures up nothing but negativity.

The recent revelation of domestic violence issues in the National Football League has given the league something serious to think about. Once the beacon of how profitable and well-run a professional sports league can be, the NFL is now operating under a cloud shrouded in darkness. The league’s actions, or lack thereof, are coming under fire, and rightfully so. It is impossible to predict exactly what the investigation being headed by former FBI Director Robert Mueller will reveal, but it is likely that it will reveal missteps on the part of the NFL in handling the domestic violence issue.

What further inflames the matter is that domestic violence involving NFL players is not a new controversy, yet a specific policy is just now being put forth. According to a database compiled by USA Today, domestic violence issues account for 85 of the 713 total NFL player arrests since 2000. A CNN story also recounted past NFL handling of domestic abuse episodes. Knowing this, it is bewildering that the Ray Rice situation was the catalyst for implementing a league-wide policy. Continue reading “Common Sense Could Have Saved NFL from Domestic Abuse Furor”

Brutality Touches Down at Home

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imagesVR6YYD65Anyone living in the United States who has watched TV in the last two weeks is undoubtedly aware that the NFL is in the midst of a storm of bad publicity. First, we saw the chilling videotape of Baltimore Ravens running back Ray Rice delivering a punch to the head that knocked out his then-fiancée (now wife) Janay Palmer, and then roughly dragging her off the elevator and dropping her like a sack of potatoes on the floor. Only days later, the Minnesota Vikings found themselves in the midst of a similar scandal when their star running back Adrian Peterson was charged with felony child abuse in Texas, where it is alleged he beat his 4-year-old son with a “switch.” Perhaps learning from the debacle that ensued when NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell originally imposed a meagre two-game suspension on Rice for his misdeeds, the Minnesota Vikings have suspended Peterson from games and team activities indefinitely, although since he continues to draw his $11 million dollar salary, he is hardly a sympathetic character at the moment. Meanwhile, the incidents involving NFL player violence against their partners and children keep surfacing.

A lot has already been said and written about these cases, and much of the discussion is thoughtful and educational. Numerous commenters, including New York Times columnist Michael Powell, have pointed out that we should not be so shocked that players who are rewarded for brutality on the football field revert to violent behavior at home. He makes an excellent point. After all, the NFL is not the only place where people who use force, sometimes brutal force, in their jobs have a hard time turning it off at home: the military and various police forces have faced similar issues. Moreover, we live in a society with a high tolerance for violence, at least violence of a recreational sort—as evidenced by numerous TV shows, video games and movies. Continue reading “Brutality Touches Down at Home”

Time for Changes in the Policies of Major League Soccer

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soccerMajor League Soccer (MLS) is the top-flight soccer league in the United States. Unlike professional soccer leagues in other nations, MLS does not use a federation model. In a federation model, a governing association controls each level of the sport, from the amateur ranks that play on Saturday afternoons to the highly paid professionals. In this structure, any team is theoretically capable of reaching the highest level of the pyramid because teams are promoted and relegated up and down the ranks at the end of each season. Instead, the structure of MLS is more akin to other American leagues: private associations in which the owners dictate operation in strictly professional ranks.

Like the other American sports leagues, MLS has largely seen its structure challenged under antitrust law. In Fraser v. Major League Soccer, 284 F.3d 47, 61 (2002), a group of players argued MLS teams’ agreement not to compete for player services was in violation of the Sherman Act. The First Circuit Court of Appeals disagreed because the appellants failed to make the requisite relevant market showing. Id. at 69. Further, the district court’s finding that MLS was a single entity for antitrust purposes was not reversed because the court did not need to decide the issue. Id. at 56.

Within the typical American league structure, the single entity antitrust exemption has not been widely adopted because teams do compete against one another for the services of players, fans, etc. While Fraser leaves the door open for further discussion of MLS and the single entity exemption, recent developments in MLS have revealed a window for claims under the law of private associations. While the remedies are not as lucrative as the treble damages in antitrust cases, the law of private associations could require the league to change its practices. Continue reading “Time for Changes in the Policies of Major League Soccer”

Is it Time to Bring Back the Marquette Law School Baseball Team?

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Vintage BaseballEvery now and then the debate over whether or not Marquette should re-establish its varsity football team gets revived. Once a respected participant in the highest level of college football, Marquette unceremoniously dropped football in 1960. (See also here.)

In spite of its long tradition in sports law, it is a not well known fact that our law school once had its own baseball team. In his The Rise of Milwaukee Baseball: The Cream City from Midwestern Outpost to the Major Leagues, 1859-1901 (p. 324), Milwaukee historian Dennis Pajot notes that in 1895, a team called The Milwaukee Law Class competed with the city’s other amateur teams.

The Milwaukee Law Class, organized by the city’s law students in 1892, was Milwaukee’s first law school. In the mid-1890’s, its name was changed to the Milwaukee Law School, and in 1908, it was acquired by Marquette University. This is why the law school celebrated its centennial in 1992. (A second centennial celebration in 2008 marked the 100th anniversary of Marquette’s acquisition of the Milwaukee Law Class/School.)

Unfortunately, we do not know very much about the 1895 team, except that the scores of some of its games were listed in Milwaukee newspapers that year. It is, of course, possible that the team began play before 1895, but with a lower profile. If it did originate before 1895, it seems likely that one of the founders and original players on the Law Class team would have been Walter Schinz.

Schinz (born 1874) was one of the founders of the Law Class in 1892 and later a prominent 20th century Milwaukee County Circuit Court judge. He was also was an avid baseball player during his youth and an enthusiastic fan of the national pastime until his death in 1957. Schinz’ Milwaukee Sentinel obituary devoted much of its content to the judge’s life-long love of baseball that began as a sandlot player in Milwaukee in the 1880’s.

There is no reason to believe that the Milwaukee Law Class baseball team was an exceptionally powerful club. At that point, the school probably had somewhere between 20 and 40 students, some of whom were probably fairly athletic but many of whom were probably not. The fact that there is no record of the team after 1895, suggests that its success was probably limited.

In contrast, the Milwaukee Medical College baseball team, which played from at least 1894 into the early 20th century, appears to have been a more powerful club. (The Milwaukee Medical College was an independent medical school which opened in 1894 and was taken over by Marquette University in 1907.)

In 1901, the Medical College team was a solid enough amateur club to have played the American League’s Milwaukee Brewers in an exhibition game just before the opening of the 1901 major league season. (The Brewers apparently won the game in a convincing fashion.)

The 1901 season was the first year that the American League played as a major league, and the Brewers were one of its original eight teams. Unfortunately, a disappointing last place finish (48-89) and a league low attendance record led to the team being transferred to St. Louis in 1902, where the Brewers became the ill-fated St. Louis Browns (who are now the Baltimore Orioles).

After the 1908 acquisition of the Milwaukee Law School by Marquette University law students were eligible to play on the Marquette varsity team, and a number, including future sports lawyer and Congressman Ray Cannon, apparently did.

Remembering the 1964 All-Star Game

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johnny callison cardLast week’s Major League All-Star Game was pretty entertaining, as All-Star games go. The game was reasonably close throughout, and the outcome was never entirely certain until the final out was made. Even though the American League jumped off to a 3-0 lead in the first inning, by the middle of the 4th inning, the game was tied at 3-3. The AL went back up 5-3 in the bottom of the 5th inning, before the offense disappeared on both sides. Neither team scored after that point, and together they combined for only two hits and two walks.

The 2014 game also ended a string of somewhat one-sided games. In 2011 and 2012, the NL prevailed by margins of 5-1 and 8-0, while last year the American League shut out a hapless NL squad by a 3-0 margin.

Submerged in the discussion of the game were occasional references to the 1964 All-Star Game of fifty years ago. That game, one of the most exciting All-Star games of all time, was played on July 7, 1964, in recently opened Shea Stadium, the new home of the hapless New York Mets. Shea had opened in April in conjunction with the 1964 New York World’s Fair, which was situated on land immediately adjacent to the park.

In the 1964 game, the lead see-sawed back and forth. The American League went up 1-0 in the first inning, only to fall behind 3-1 as the NL tallied two runs in the 4th and another in the 5th. However, the junior circuit, as the AL was still referred to in that era, came back to tie the score in the 6th inning, and then went ahead 4-3 in the top of the 7th when Los Angeles Angels shortstop Jim Fregrosi (who passed away earlier this year) drove in New York Yankee catcher and reigning American League MVP Elston Howard with a sacrifice fly.

This one-run lead held until the bottom of the 9th inning. As the inning began, Hall of Famer Willie Mays faced Boston Red Sox relief pitcher Dick “the Monster” Radatz, who was pitching his third inning of the game. Radatz had previously been unhittable, retiring all six batters that he had faced, including four by strikeout. Suddenly, however, Radatz could not find the plate, and Mays drew a walk. The Say Hey Kid then stole second and a couple of pitches later came around to score on a bloop single to right by his San Francisco Giant teammate and fellow All-Star game starter Orlando Cepeda.

Actually, Mays would not have scored on Cepeda’s hit, but for first baseman Joe Pepitone’s errant throw to the plate. Mays had already stopped on third base but Pepitone threw home anyway. Unfortunately for the American League, his throw from shallow right field landed short of home plate and bounced over the head of catcher Elston Howard, allowing Mays to scamper home with the tying run, while Cepeda advanced to second base.

With the score now tied, NL Manager Walter Alston inserted fleet-footed Curt Flood into the game as a pinch-runner for Cepeda. Radatz, apparently unshaken by his bad luck, then induced National League third baseman Ken Boyer, who had homered earlier in the game, to pop out to third base for the first out. AL manager Al Lopez then ordered Radatz to intentionally walk catcher Johnny Edwards, an average hitter at best, to set up a possible double play.

At this point, Manager Alston countered by sending legendary Milwaukee Braves outfielder Hank Aaron up to the plate to pinch-hit for Met second baseman Ron Hunt. Undeterred by Aaron’s reputation as a clutch hitter, Radatz whiffed the legendary outfielder for the second out of the inning. At this point, Radatz had only to retire Philadelphia Phillie outfielder Johnny Callison to send the game into extra innings.

This was Callison’s second at-bat against Radatz, and he alone of the National League batters had managed a solid hit off the 6’6” fireballer, having flied out to deep centerfield for the final out of the 7th inning. Rising to the occasion, Callison did even better in his second appearance.

Wasting no time, he blasted Radatz’ first pitch into the right field stands for a game-winning, three-run home run. Suddenly, a 4-4 tie, seemingly headed for extra innings, had become a 7-4 National League victory.

(Here  is a highlight film of the game, which includes Callison’s home run.)

As a reminder of how much baseball has changed since 1964, it is worth noting the All-Star Game of 1964 differed from its 2014 counterpart in a number of ways, beyond having a much more exciting ending.

1. The All-Star Game was a day-time event. In the grand tradition of daylight baseball, before 1967, the All-Star game always began in the early afternoon in the Eastern Time Zone (which meant that it frequently began before noon on the West Coast). Watching the 1964 game, which began on NBC television at 12:45 p.m., presumably required many adults to figure out a way to get the afternoon off from work.

Fortunately, I was an unemployed 12-year old, playing his final year of Little League Baseball, so I didn’t have to worry about free time. In my circles, every boy my age felt obligated not only to watch the game but also to root for one league or the other. For the record, I rooted for the American League.

Night-time All Star Games were introduced in 1967, when the game began at 4:00 p.m. in Anaheim, California, which was 7 p.m. on the East Coast. Since then no afternoon game has been played.

2. The All-Star Game in 1964 was first and last a baseball game. There was very little hoopla surrounding the game other than interest in its final score. Only the starters were introduced by name. Moreover, there was certainly nothing at the 1964 game comparable to the major production made of Derek Jeter’s impending retirement and the minor production around Bud Selig’s announced retirement as commissioner.

No player who participated in the 1964 All-Star game retired after the 1964 season, but it seems certain that if one was planning to retire, he would not have announced it until the end of the season. Commissioner Ford Frick did retire the following year, but he waited until after the 1965 All-Star game to make the announcement. In 1964, a too-early retirement announcement would likely have been denounced as a form of self-aggrandizement.

3. Attending the game in person did not cost an arm and a leg. The most expensive tickets to the 1964 game — those in the box seats — sold for $8.40. If you were willing to sit in the bleachers, you could get in for a buck-twenty ($1.20). According to a Forbes Magazine story published at the end of this past May, the average ticket price for a 2014 All-Star game ticket on the secondary market was slightly more than $1,000, with the cheapest seats going for $367 each.

4. Fewer players made the All-Star team. In 1964, each All-Star team consisted of only 25 players, the number of players on an actual team during the regular season. Although the 25-man roster is still the rule in Major League Baseball, All-Star game rosters have been greatly expanded. This year, there were 34 players on each team. Roster expansion actually began back in 1969, when the number of teams in each league expanded from ten to twelve.

Technically, the expansion in the number of teams, currently 30, has been greater than the expansion in the size of the rosters. In 1964, 10% of current Major League players (50/500) were named to the All-Star game roster; in 2014, the figure was 9% (68/750). In 1964, there was a rule, as there is today, that each team must have at least one representative on the team.

5. Players, not fans, selected the starting line-up for the game. In 1964, the All-Star starters except for the pitcher were selected by a vote of Major League players. In 2014, the starters were selected by a vote of the fans.

Before 1947, the starting line-ups were selected by the All-Star team managers, but in 1947, the selection process was turned over to a fan vote. However, between 1957 and 1970, concern over “ballot-box stuffing” by fans of a particular team, led to the adoption of a system that relied on player voting. Selection of the starting line-ups was returned to the fans in 1970. Since that time “ballot box stuffing” has been encouraged.

Throughout the history of the game, starting pitchers have always been chosen by the All-Star managers. The honor of managing the All-Star team, then as now, went to the manager of each league’s representative in the previous fall’s World Series.

In 1964, that would ordinarily have been Walter Alston of the Los Angeles Dodgers and Ralph Houk of the New York Yankees. However, after the 1963 season, Houk was promoted to General Manager of the Yankees with Yogi Berra named to replace him as field manager. Under the rules, Houk was not eligible to manage in the All-Star Game, and he was replaced, not by his Yankee successor, but by Al Lopez, the manager of the Chicago White Sox, who had finished second to the Yankees in 1963.

6. Many players never got into the game in 1964, and some starters played the entire game. Although substitutions were more frequent in the All-Star game than in a normal regular season game, there was no expectation in 1964 that every player on the All-Star roster would be used in the game. In fact, it was assumed that several of the starters would play the entire game and that many of the reserves would not get into the game, unless it went into extra innings. That a significant number of All-Stars failed to be used by their managers did not seem to generate much controversy in 1964.

In 1964, three National League and four American League starters (including AL catcher Elston Howard), played the entire game. Starters who were taken out usually came out only late in the game. At the end of the 8th inning of the 1964 contest, 10 of 16 starters were still in the game. Altogether only 37 of the 50 roster players appeared in the game, and 5 of the 37 participated only as pinch hitters or pinch runners and another played only one-half inning in the field. In other words, of the 19 position-player substitutes, only 6 played as much as one full inning. Six of the 15 pitchers saw no action at all. Among those who did not get into the game were future Hall of Famers Whitey Ford and Bill Mazeroski .

In contrast, in 2014, 62 of 68 eligible players (32 from the NL and 30 from the AL) made it into the game, and no 2014 position player’s appearance was limited to pinch hitting, pinch running, or a single half-inning in the field. Moreover, every starter had been removed from the game by the end of the 6th inning. (Technically, AL DH Giancarlo Stanton was lifted for a pinch-hitter in the 8th inning, but that was only because a DH can only be removed by being pinch hit for. Stanton last appeared in the game in the 6th inning.)

Curiously, in 2014, for the third year in a row, no San Diego Padre player appeared in the All-Star game although there was, of course, a Padres player on the National League roster each year.

7. In 1964, almost all All-Star pitchers were starting pitchers, and pitchers were expected to pitch up to the three inning maximum unless it was necessary to pinch hit for them. In 1964, American League manager Al Lopez of the White Sox chose only eight pitchers for his 25 man squad, and NL manager Walter Alston of the Dodgers chose only seven. This clearly indicated an expectation that several pitchers would hurl more than one inning. Then as now, pitchers were limited to pitching three innings, unless the game went into extra innings.

Fourteen of the 15 pitchers chosen in 1964 were starting pitchers. The one exception was Boston Red Sox reliever Dick Radatz, mentioned above, who had compiled a truly phenomenal record in relief. From 1962 to 1964, Radatz, while pitching for Red Sox teams that never finished higher than 7th place in the standings, managed to win 40 games and save 78 while striking out 487 batters in 414 innings, all in relief. In contrast, the pitching staffs of both leagues in 2014 were intentionally composed of starters, middle relievers, and closers.

Of the nine pitchers who appeared in the 1964 All-Star game, only one, Philadelphia’s Chris Short, was removed from the game simply so that someone else could pitch. (Short also gave up three hits and two runs in the only inning in which he appeared.) Both starting pitchers, Don Drysdale and Dean Chance, pitched the maximum of three innings, while two others, Juan Marichal and Dick Radatz, were still in the game when it ended. The other four pitchers who appeared were all removed from the game for pinch-hitters. Even though Radatz was a terrible hitter — his lifetime batting average at the start of the 1964 season was .083 — he was allowed to bat in the eighth inning so that he could stay in the game and pitch a third inning.

In contrast, 21 pitchers appeared in the 2014 game. No one pitched more than one inning, and eight pitched less than a full inning. Of course, with the use of the designated hitter in the modern game, the issue of whether or not to remove a pitcher never arises. Nor is the three-inning limitation apparently of any consequence.

8. The two All-Star teams placed a greater emphasis on winning the game in 1964 than they do in the modern era. Judging by the way in which the two managers operated in 1964, this seems to be a valid conclusion. However, at the time, it was a common complaint that while the National League went all out to win each All-Star game, the American League seemed to view the event more as an exhibition game designed to showcase the sport’s stars. The fact that the American League managed only one win and one tie in the 13 All-Star games played between 1960 and 1969 seemed to lend some support to this theory. (There were 13 games in the decade because two All-Star games were played in 1960, 1961, and 1962.)

As mentioned, the way in which both managers handled their rosters in 1964, especially compared to their 2014 counterparts, does suggest that winning meant more to the managers fifty years ago, if not to the players, than it does now. Although Major League Baseball introduced the “league that wins the All-Star Game gets home field advantage in the World Series” feature in 2003, to try to make the All-Star Game appear more significant, getting as many players as possible into the game still seems to be the primary objective of both managers.

9. Fifty years ago All-Star Games didn’t last as long as they do now. Presumably because they featured fewer substitutions and fewer pitching changes, the All-Star Games of the 1960’s were shorter than those of today. Even with a full 9th inning and more scoring the 1964 game lasted only 2:37, compared to the 3:13 for the 2014 event.